New Years winter storm

A band of clouds envelops the San Francisco Peaks.

A very cold storm system moved across the southwestern states on the last day of 2018 bringing snow to both the usual locations but in the lower elevations and the desert as well.

I awoke before dawn on New Years Day and was greeted with clear skies and a crescent Moon with the planets Venus and Jupiter shining brightly in the eastern sky. I drove out towards Mormon Lake anticipating great—albeit very cold—conditions for some sunrise snow photographs. On the way to the lake I encountered low clouds and patchy fog and there was nothing to be seen upon my arrival. It was already too close to sunrise to head back north or west so my only option was to wait and hope.

Clouds and fog clear away shortly after sunrise to reveal the San Francisco Peaks.
Clouds and fog clear away shortly after sunrise to reveal the San Francisco Peaks.

I missed the sunrise but about 20 to 30 minutes later the clouds cleared and the San Francisco Peaks were amazing. Low clouds and fog remained around the base of the peaks.

Rime ice glows in morning sunshine.
Rime ice glows in morning sunshine.

As the sun rose higher the side-lit rime ice on the wild grasses (i.e., weeds) at the Mormon Lake Overlook began to glisten and glow.

Temperatures were hovering in the low single digits and I was cold after standing around for about an hour. Time for breakfast and hot coffee.

The next day we hiked into West Fork Oak Creek knowing that the trail would be snow packed and there would be a dozen water crossings on ice—hopefully solid enough to support us. After several days of below freezing high temperatures and near or sub-zero overnight temperatures we were hopeful for safe ice.

Natural ice sculptures in West Fork Oak Creek.
Natural ice sculptures in West Fork Oak Creek.
There are several locations where water drips down the cliffs even at these cold temperatures resulting in wonderful icicles and bizarre ice sculptures on the ground.
West Fork Oak Creek.
West Fork Oak Creek.

We hiked to the “end” of the trail where it enters a narrow, rock-walled section of canyon often called “The Subway.” This was our turnaround spot.

Sunlight reflected off canyon walls and then reflected again on the ice.
Sunlight reflected off canyon walls and then reflected again on the ice.
West Fork Oak Creek.
West Fork Oak Creek.

On the way up the canyon we had not run into any other hikers. What a treat!

Winter has arrived in West Fork Oak Creek Canyon

After a pair of back-to-back snow storms followed by sub-zero (°F) overnight temperatures we decided it was time to visit West Fork Oak Creek Canyon and see how the ice was developing.

As anyone who has hiked in this canyon knows, the trail crosses the creek more than a dozen times before the end of the maintained trail. In the summer it’s a simple matter of either stepping on the stones or just walking in the water. Getting wet is not an option in the winter leaving the stepping stones or walking on the ice if it is safe.

Most of the crossings we encountered had a mixture of stones and thick ice and we had no trouble crossing the stream. For additional traction we were using our Kahtoola microspikes.

Icy walk along West Fork Oak Creek.
Icy walk along West Fork Oak Creek.

The very cold temperatures and patches of open water resulted in surface hoar (i.e., fern-like ice crystals directly deposited on snow, ice or already frozen surfaces) developing and creating some interesting textures.

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A visit to West Fork Oak Creek after the Slide Fire

The Slide Fire started on May 20, 2014, and was fully contained 16 days later. In the aftermath of the fire, Coconino National Forest closed much of Oak Creek Canyon for safety reasons. Four months later, on October 1, the restrictions were lifted and recreational activities resumed.

We wondered how much—or how little—of West Fork Oak Creek (WFOC) had burned. There had been some information during and just after the fire indicating that in the lower section of the canyon there was only light to moderate burn severity and only over a small percentage of the canyon. (Detailed map from InciWeb.) Farther up in the headwaters there had been widespread low intensity burns.

Typical burn scar seen in the lower reaches of West Fork.
Typical burn scar seen in the lower reaches of West Fork.

So, finally, we hiked up WFOC to see for ourselves. The information was essentially correct and only small portions had burned and at low intensity. The canyon had survived. But there was still significant damage. Because of the burned areas farther up canyon, heavy rains this summer caused a lot of soil and ash to wash into the creek and flow downstream.

The creek channel was filled with silt and black ash. Where once the creek bottom had been smooth sandstone it now had several feet of silt and ash with deep channels carved through the silt.

This will slowly evolve back to its original state as winter rains and summer thunderstorms over the coming years flush out the silt and ash.

On a brighter note, we did see a late crop of ripening berries along the creek. Tasty!

A late season crop of ripening blackberries along West Fork.
A late season crop of ripening blackberries along West Fork.

One of the most significant changes occurred at the end of the West Fork Trail. The trail ends around 3.3 miles from the trail head where the canyon narrows and deep water is found from edge to edge. To travel farther upstream requires wading through water that is thigh deep in places. Most hikers turn back at this point; a few hardy hikers accept the challenge of water and no trail and continue upstream for many miles.

End of West Fork Trail in 2012 with water-filled channel.
End of West Fork Trail in 2012 with water-filled channel.
End of West Fork Trail in 2008 with water-filled channel.
End of West Fork Trail in 2008 with water-filled channel.
End of West Fork Trail in 2014 with silt-filled channel.
End of West Fork Trail in 2014 with silt-filled channel.

That has changed now as silt fills the slot canyon and a firm trail now exists where it once was only water.

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Winter returns to West Fork Oak Creek

Winter has arrived in northern Arizona with snow and very cold temperatures. On this morning (09 December), the temperature fell to -9°F in Flagstaff and -23°F at Grand Canyon Airport. That’s getting cold enough for West Fork Oak Creek to start freezing over allowing wintertime travel. It had snowed a few days earlier and with fresh powder this had the potential to be an interesting hike and photo trip.

Dry grasses poke through the shallow snow.
Dry grasses poke through the shallow snow.

But the creek wasn’t frozen enough. Where there were rocks or logs crossing the creek was possible — if not easy. But in spots where one had to cross an expanse of ice — well, no, not yet. Nothing quite like stepping out onto the ice and having it crack in spider web fashion under your feet — with knee deep water below. So, we were unable to travel more than about 1 1/2 miles upstream before returning.

Snow and ice in West Fork.
Snow and ice in West Fork.

We ran into only one other group of hikers on the trail. Although from California, they have lived in cold climes before and were not daunted by the cold and snow in the canyon. But they, too, turned around at the icy crossing.

Giant icicles hang from the sandstone walls of West Fork Oak Creek.
Giant icicles hang from the sandstone walls of West Fork Oak Creek.

There will be other chances later in the winter when the ice may be safely passable. Or, maybe not. It’s always a bit of a mystery on what we will find when we arrive at West Fork Oak Creek.

 

A winter walk along West Fork Oak Creek

It’s been cold around these parts lately. How cold? Well, we’ve seen -24ºF in Bellemont, -19ºF in Tusayan, and -9ºF in Flagstaff. These are all northern Arizona communities that are used to the cold — but not for this many days in a row. This is the coldest 5-day period in Flagstaff in over three decades.

 

One of many icy crossings of West Fork Oak Creek.
One of many icy crossings of West Fork Oak Creek.

There are some benefits. With prolonged cold some of the streams in the canyons will freeze. With this in mind, we took a hike up West Fork Oak Creek. The trail was snow packed and icy. Wisely, we all had foot traction gear including instep crampons and microspikes.

An icy rock and log crossing of West Fork Oak Creek.
An icy rock and log crossing of West Fork Oak Creek.

The trail crosses the creek numerous times and the first few crossings were tricky but doable. That is, the logs and/or stepping stones were ice covered but sure footing could be found using care and caution.

Wall of ice in West Fork Oak Creek.
Wall of ice in West Fork Oak Creek.

 

One of stream crossings, though, stymied us. For whatever reasons, the water and ice level had increased substantially in this location so that all the stepping stones were well under water and ice. And the flow of water had become concentrated along one side of the channel so that the ice was eroded. After studying it for awhile, we reluctantly agreed that the risk of crashing through the ice was too great. We turned back.

 

Canyon wall reflections in icy West Fork Oak Creek (2007)
Canyon wall reflections in icy West Fork Oak Creek (2007).

In previous years we had easily moved through this crossing and many others farther upstream including the “subway” passage. We had hoped to make it this far and, possibly, even farther upstream. It wasn’t to be.

 

Frozen West Fork Oak Creek (2007).
Frozen West Fork Oak Creek (2007).
A deep pool crossing in the "subway" made easy with ice in West Fork Oak Creek (2007).
A deep pool crossing in the “subway” made easy with ice in West Fork Oak Creek (2007).

Still, it’s never a bad day when you are out hiking with no one else around except your friends in an environment not often experienced by most.

Edit: 01 Feb 2013 – fixed typos.